Goku was based off of Sun Wukong from the Journey to the west. Just like Sun Wukong, Goku wielded a staff and a cloud. Goku's Saiyan name "Kakarot" is based off of a carrot since all Saiyans have vegetable name puns.
Goku starts out looking short for his age and looking younger than his actual age. When he turned 18, he became much taller and his appearance changed severely. His friends and masters had a difficult time recognizing him until he showed his hair which is quite spiky like other Saiyans.
Goku is appreciated hearted person as shown by how he rode the ying Nimbus as a child. He has no negative thoughts which was convinced whe he was not affected by Spike The Devil Man's Devilmite which destroys anyone wih negative energy.
Goku isn's very bright as shown throught the series especially when he cannot tell the difference between a boy and a girl during his childhood. This is because he was raised in a mountain and always focused on becoming stronger.
Goku is very brave since he does not fear opponents stronger than himself but he does have one fear; Goku is afraid of needles. Goku also has two weaknesses in combat. One is that he can't fiht well when he ishungry and he used to loaeall his power when his tai was pulled. His tail waspulled off so he only has his hunger to deal with. Goku also has weaknesses with his heart since he tries to put the lives of others before himseft which has given his opponent an advantage.
Goku usually does not give up and has done it once but only because he knew his son would defeat Cell. Goku lobes his family besides his brother and father who he thinks are ruthless. Despite this, Goku spared his brother Raditz to change but he did not. This can be his greatest weakness because he is kind to even villains.